It is mathematically preposterous to infer macroevolutionary developments from microevolutionary observations according to Dr Olen R. Brown, Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Missouri- Columbia, USA, and, David A. Hullender, Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Texas at Arlington, US.

This new evidence is from an article “Neo-Darwinism must Mutate to Survive” by Brown and Hullender in an international journal called Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, which is a peer-reviewed publication established in 1950. It seeks to offer “informative and critical reviews of recent advances in different aspects of biophysics and molecular biology.


Darwinian evolution is a nineteenth-century descriptive concept that itself has evolved. Selection by survival of the fittest was a captivating idea. Microevolution was biologically and empirically verified by the discovery of mutations. There has been limited progress to the modern synthesis. The central focus of this perspective is to provide evidence to document that selection based on survival of the fittest is insufficient for other than microevolution. Realistic probability calculations based on probabilities associated with microevolution are presented. However, macroevolution (required for all speciation events and the complexifications appearing in the Cambrian explosion) is shown to be probabilistically highly implausible (on the order of 10−50) when based on selection by survival of the fittest. We conclude that macroevolution via survival of the fittest is not salvageable by arguments for random genetic drift and other proposed mechanisms. Evolutionary biology is relevant to cancer mechanisms with significance beyond academics. We challenge evolutionary biology to advance boldly beyond the inadequacies of the modern synthesis toward a unifying theory modeled after the Grand Unified Theory in physics. This should include the possibility of a fifth force in nature. Mathematics should be rigorously applied to current and future evolutionary empirical discoveries. We present justification that molecular biology and biochemistry must evolve to aeon (life) chemistry that acknowledges the uniqueness of enzymes for life. To evolve, biological evolution must face the known deficiencies, especially the limitations of the concept of survival of the fittest, and seek solutions in Eigen’s concept of self-organization, Schrödinger’s negentropy, and novel approaches.

Something essential is missing in the theory of biological evolution (Neo-Darwinism)

Any overall mechanistic explanation of the origin and evolution of life ultimately must satisfy two challenges: the transition from non-life to life, and the blossoming of life forms that are so extreme as to appear outrageous. The evolution of a few flowers on a hillside is reasonably explained by mutation and selection; it stretches logic to explain the millions of extremely diverse species seen currently and in the fossil record. It is difficult to conceptualize an insect that is novel or more…

A way forward

An example of the application of mathematics to a difficult science problem was the Drake equation which estimated the number of alien civilizations capable of radio communication with Earth (Loeffler, n.d.). Carl Sagan popularized it on the PBS broadcast Cosmos. Drake and his equation contributed significantly to the founding of the Search for Extraterrestrial Life (SETI). We propose an equation, modeled after the Drake equation, to stimulate thought about evolution probabilities (Eq. (1)). The …

Probability of evolution

Probability, like any scientific analysis, has limitations. Because evolution is generally accepted as scientifically established, probability assessment has largely been overlooked; it happened, we are here, so the probability is one. Evolutionary probability generally is said to be supported by the statement that billions of years make evolution possible. However, this overlooks the fact that time is a linear factor and evolutionary probability inevitability involves exponentials that are …

Self-organization is hidden in life chemistry

Manfred Eigen, a Nobel Laureate, and member of the Pontifical Academy, introduced the concept of the self-organizing power of matter into biological evolutionary theory (“Manfred Eigen: From relaxation kinetics to evolution,” 2018). His 59-page article titled Self-organization of Matter and the Evolution of Biological Macromolecules (Eigen, n.d.) was published in 1971. Eigen did more than anyone before or since to apply mathematics to evolution. Throughout the paper, Eigen supports the narrative with …

The enzyme is essential for life

Life is the most unimaginable state of matter. For growth and replication, energy is essential. The cell is chemically far from equilibrium and maintained by intricately complex processes that require enzymes to make required chemical changes. All life forms use ATP as the ultimate energy source to pull reactions in favoured ways essential to life. The human, amazingly, using the power of enzymes makes approximately 450 pounds of ATP each day according to L. M. Krauss (2001). This requires that …

Aeon chemistry

As “the something” additional required to explain life we propose that the concept of life chemistry (aeon chemistry – meaning vital or life chemistry) be used for the biochemistry within cells that has the appearance of being directed or vital. The difference is not subtle; it cannot be avoided with intellectual honesty. Life, and most certainly its evolution, involves direction (for example, the descent of humans from a common ancestor). It is irrational to believe that chemistry to form a rock or a …

New physics and a fifth force in nature?

The long-awaited first results from the Muon g-2 experiment at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are now available (UW News staff, n.d.). The data show fundamental particles called muons acting in ways not predicted by the current best theory, the Standard Model of particle physics. The finding is of tremendous significance. The result, made with unprecedented precision, confirms a discrepancy that has been concerning researchers for decades. Although it is…


Biology originated as a descriptive science; it has progressed to an empirical stage, and now it is time to retain both while boldly progressing into a theoretical phase. Microevolution is probabilistically realistic; macroevolution is not, and this is documented empirically. Biological evolution should be challenged with four objectives: (1) to redefine the limitations of survival of the fittest (natural selection) to explain what is fundamentally established and creatively to seek and define…

Article “Neo-Darwinism must Mutate to survive” by Dr Olen R. Brown, Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Missouri- Columbia, USA and, David A. Hullender, Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of Texas at Arlington, US – https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/progress-in-biophysics-and-molecular-biology


The chart below shows the generations from Shem to the establishment of God’s nation Israel with the covenant God made with Abraham down to Jesus entering history 64 generations from the time God judged the world with the flood of Noah’s day. The new name God gave to Jacob, Israel, expresses the concept of wrestling, clinging firmly to God, and overcoming. God confirmed his covenant with Jacob, indicating that Israel is to be understood as Jacob’s covenant name. After all his original name was hardly appropriate. When born, Jacob is given the name “Jacob” meaning, “trickster, supplanter, heel grabber.”

WhatWhoGenerations from Shem
Father of the faithAbraham (down through Isaac)9
IsraelitesJacob renamed Israel11
Jews (Judaism)Judah12
Christians (including Messianic Jews)Jesus64
These are the clans of the sons of Noah, according to their genealogies, in their nations, and from these, the nations spread abroad on the earth after the flood.

Shem was still alive at the time of the confusion of languages at the Tower of Babel and its aftermath. No longer was there just one speech, but multiple complex languages miraculously arose according to families (Genesis 11:1, 9), whose members would be fluent in their own (new) language (Genesis 10:5, 20, 31).

Languages are grouped into families; linguists recognize about 20 main ones. Germanic languages (e.g. English, Dutch, German, and Swedish) are part of the Indo-European (traditionally Japhetic) language family. Semitic languages are part of the Afro-Asiatic family (previously called Hamito-Semitic).

If evolution were true, we would expect all language families to be related. However, linguist Dr Paul Lawrence states, “languages within a language family have many common features, surprisingly few of these features are shared with languages from another language family, suggesting that the protolanguages and progenitors of modern isolates arose at the original confusion of languages.”

Semitic languages (74) include Arabic (South Semitic) and Hebrew (together with Aramaic, Canaanite, and others categorized as West Semitic languages).

Both are written from right to left, with the Arabic alphabet having six more letters than Hebrew’s 22. The consonants common to both are often named similarly. Neither alphabet has symbols for vowels. Many words are made of a root of three consonants which can be modified to form variations on that word. Around 60% of the vocabulary is related.

The Semitic group shows generally a loss of complexity over time while remaining more complex than English. One example is Akkadian (extinct East Semitic).

Based on evolution, it would be expected that going back in time, languages would be found to be simpler. The opposite is the case. For example, nouns in English and Dutch—both Germanic languages—had several cases in the past, but these are now almost entirely gone. New High German still possesses cases, but not as many as Old High German, for example.

Biblical history provides answers for all the reasons the world is as it is today. The many fulfilled Biblical prophecies also provide ample evidence Biblical history is true. They are also the reason why we can expect the many prophecies of Jesus’ second coming to be fulfilled exactly as outlined in both the O.T. and N.T., particularly in Daniel’s 70 weeks prophecy, Jesus Olivet Discourse, and Revelation. The following Scriptures are to whet your appetite for all the gems that are in the Bible concerning Jesus’ second coming and the end of Satan’s rule on this earth. Next is Jesus and the Saints ruling on this earth for 1000 years – Jesus’ Millennial Kingdom. Go to http://www.millennialkingdom.net for more information on what comes next on God’s agenda.


Seventy weeks are decreed about your people and your holy city, to finish the transgression, to put an end to sin, and to atone for iniquity, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal both vision and prophet and to anoint a most holy place. Know therefore and understand that from the going out of the word to restore and build Jerusalem to the coming of an anointed one, a prince, there shall be seven weeks. Then for sixty-two weeks, it shall be built again with squares and moat, but in a troubled time. And after the sixty-two weeks, an anointed one shall be cut off and shall have nothing. And the people of the prince who is to come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary. Its end shall come with a flood, and to the end, there shall be war. Desolations are decreed. And he shall make a strong covenant with many for one week, and for half of the week, he shall put an end to sacrifice and offering. And on the wing of abominations shall come one who makes desolate, until the decreed end is poured out on the desolator.” Daniel 9:24-27


As he (Jesus) sat on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to him privately, saying, “Tell us, when will these things be, and what will be the sign of your coming and of the end of the age?” And Jesus answered them, “See that no one leads you astray. For many will come in my name, saying, ‘I am the Christ,’ and they will lead many astray. And you will hear of wars and rumors of wars. See that you are not alarmed, for this must take place, but the end is not yet. For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom, and there will be famines and earthquakes in various places. All these are but the beginning of the birth pains.
“Then they will deliver you up to tribulation and put you to death, and you will be hated by all nations for my name’s sake. And then many will fall away and betray one another and hate one another. And many false prophets will arise and lead many astray. And because lawlessness will be increased, the love of many will grow cold. But the one who endures to the end will be saved. And this gospel of the kingdom will be proclaimed throughout the whole world as a testimony to all nations, and then the end will come.
.. “Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light, and the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken. Then will appear in heaven the sign of the Son of Man, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And He will send out his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.” Matthew 24:3-14,29-31


After this, I looked, and behold, a great multitude that no one could number, from every nation, from all tribes and peoples and languages, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed in white robes, with palm branches in their hands, and crying out with a loud voice, “Salvation belongs to our God who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb!” And all the angels were standing around the throne and around the elders and the four living creatures, and they fell on their faces before the throne and worshiped God, saying, “Amen! Blessing and glory and wisdom and thanksgiving and honor and power and might be to our God forever and ever! Amen.”
Then one of the elders addressed me, saying, “Who are these, clothed in white robes, and from where have they come?” I said to him, “Sir, you know.” And he said to me, “These are the ones coming out of the great tribulation. They have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.
Revelation 7:9-14

For this, we declare to you by a word from the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left until the coming of the Lord, will not precede those who have fallen asleep. For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a cry of command, with the voice of an archangel, and with the sound of the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we will always be with the Lord. Therefore encourage one another with these words.” 1 Thessalonians 4:15-18



Does HISTORY really validate the New Testament Gospels to be true about Jesus: His first coming, His crucifixion, His resurrection, His coming again?

Non-Christian ancient sources confirm details of Christ’s death and some of His resurrection. Dr. Gary Habermas catalogued over 3,400 sources, many of whom are sceptical, or even critical of Christians, adding to their veracity. Here are seven of the three thousand four hundred: 1. Josephus 37-100 AD, 2. Suetonius 70-160 AD, 3. Pliny the Younger 61-113 AD, 4. Tacitus 56-120 AD, 5. Mara Bar-Serapion 72 AD, 6. Lucian 125-180 AD, 7. Babylonian Talmud. They all confirm key points of the gospel

1. Jesus died by crucifixion; 2. He was buried; 3. His death caused the disciples to despair and lose hope; 4. The tomb was empty three days later. 5. Hundreds of people saw the resurrected Jesus.

After Jesus’ resurrection, all of His disciples saw Him and had many experiences with Him, “for over 40 days” (Acts 1:3) – eating with Jesus in different places, and lastly watching Jesus ascend off the earth – “as they were looking on, He was lifted up, and a cloud took Him out of their sight” (Acts 1:9).

Rome’s most prominent Jewish historian, Flavius Josephus (37-100 AD) wrote about the resurrection of Jesus. He also recorded Jesus’ 12 apostles and many of Jesus’ disciples (1 Cor. 15:1-9) all went to their deaths, most as martyrs for continually claiming Jesus’ resurrection (1 John 1:1-4). Some people have died for what was a lie – but no one, much less hundreds, will die for what they ALL KNOW is a lie! The apostles and Jesus’ disciples all preached Jesus’ resurrection up to the time of their deaths.

Today – anyone can find out if Jesus is alive! Jesus made it possible for our Heavenly Father to send the Third Person of the Trinity, the Holy Spirit, to indwell the spirit of everyone who repents of their sins against God and accepts Jesus as their Lord and Saviour. The Holy Spirit is their counsellor, teacher, and comforter.

The spirit of man is the lamp of the Lord, searching all his innermost parts.” Proverbs 20:27

The spirit of a person was always meant to be filled with the Holy Spirit. The lamp of the Lord cannot function without the oil of the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit will convict us of sin. It is His job to make us like Jesus to enable us to be Jesus’ ambassadors on the earth.

“However, you are not in the flesh but in the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God dwells in you But if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Him. If Christ is in you, though the body is dead because of sin, yet the spirit is alive because of righteousness. But if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, He who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through His Spirit who dwells in you.” Romans 8:9-11 

Thousands of Christians have beemartyred for not denying their loyalty to Jesus Christ and many more will do so before His return. Jesus has warned us beforehand that prior to His return there will be a time of great tribulation for Christians.

There need be no question, historically or personally, about the resurrection of Jesus. If someone is willing to receive Him as their own personal Lord and Saviour they will receive the third person of the Trinity, the Holy Spirit who will testify to the reality of Jesus and God the Father.   

The detail on the historical sources of Jesus’ life, death and resurrection was sourced from material provided by Jim McCotter – jimsbookstore.com


The Bible’s history provides the only true explanation for the world that exists today. We know from Egypt’s history that the eight people that survived God’s judgement of the worldwide flood of Noah’s day were deified as the OGDOAD. One of the reasons they were deified as gods was because they outlived at least 8 generations of post-flood people. God had reduced the post-flood people’s lifespan to a max of 120 years. The other reason being they were the only source of all of the knowledge of the pre-flood people which included building cities and forging with bronze and iron.

Cain knew his wife, and she conceived and bore Enoch. When he built a city, he called the name of the city after the name of his son, Enoch… To Enoch was born Irad, and Irad fathered Mehujael, and Mehujael fathered Methushael, and Methushael fathered Lamech. (Lamech’s wife Adah bore Jabal), His brother’s name was Jubal; he was the father of all those who play the lyre and pipe. Zillah also bore Tubal-cain; he was the forger of all instruments of bronze and iron.Genesis 4:17-22

The picture below depicts the eight people (Noah and his family) in a boat being held up by God (Atum) so that they survived the worldwide flood. To learn more, if you have not already done so, can I suggest you take a look at my post on March 14th, 2023 titled Biblical History: 1. Impact of the worldwide flood on Nations. 2. God established His nation Israel.

The meaning of Shem

Jesus descended from Noah’s son Shem. Shem means ‘name’ (reputation). It also denotes a person’s whole selfhood, their presence—which is why it was God’s “name” that dwelt in the temple (2 Chronicles 7:16). How fitting that Jesus descended from the one called “name”, as the perfect and whole representation of God, to dwell among us!

The eight people off the Ark lived long lives just as all pre-flood people did. Shem lived at least 600 years and was probably 450 years old when he met Abraham. Shem was still alive when Isaac was born—his great (8×) grandson. If they lived close enough for a family visit, Shem could have chatted with Isaac (and any of the generations in between still alive) and told them about the world before the Flood. For example, he might have shared how much more common dinosaurs were in the days prior to the Deluge, and that there weren’t any really high mountains to speak of, nor the Arctic and Antarctic of today covered in ice.

The unique biblical post-flood Ice Age model solves the stubborn mysteries of earth science that secular scientists have been wrestling with for some 200 years. The Genesis Flood explains why the Ice Age began, why it stopped, and how it took only hundreds of years, not hundreds of thousands. The Ice Age model solves other mysteries such as the life and death of the woolly mammoth in Siberia, Alaska, and Canada’s Yukon Territory; the end-Ice-Age mass extinction of animals; the mix of warm and cold-climate animals and plants; and why today’s dry areas (e.g. the Sahara, Central Australia) were once well-watered. See the article The Unique Post-Flood Ice Age by Michael Oard (www.creation.com)

In another post, we will look at the fact these eight people off the Ark would have lived through the Tower of Babel event when God created the nations by causing different family groups to speak different languages and so separated and dispersed over all of the earth.


The information in this post was largely extracted from an interview with Dr. Sarah Fay Buckland titled GEOGRAPHY EXPERT FOR CREATION (Jonathan Sarfati chats with Dr. Sarah Buckland) in Creation Magazine 2023 Vol 45, Issue 2.

Dr. Sarah Fay Buckland earned her doctorate in geography from The University of the West Indies (Kingston, Jamaica) with high commendation. Dr. Buckland, who is a lecturer and published researcher, also holds a certificate in Bible evidence from the Creation Apologetics Teachers’ College (USA) by the Creation Training Initiative. She is the founder and principal director of Chosen to GLOW Ministries, which seeks to amplify the Christian voice in the public sphere and equip more youths to defend their faith.

Dr. Sarah Fay Buckland explains why it is imperative we believe the Genesis account of origins.

Evolution undermines the reliability of biblical history:

Evolutionary theory posits that human ancestry cannot be traced directly to only one man, contrasting with the biblical account of a literal Adam and Eve. This compromised belief undermines Jesus’ entire genealogy, as recorded in Luke’s Gospel. Jesus’ human ancestry traces back to Adam and the patriarchs. So how much of the Bible, therefore, would be deemed trustworthy? As Jesus asked:

If I have told you earthly things and you do not believe, how can you believe if I tell you heavenly things?John 2:12

Evolution undermines Jesus’ authority, omniscience, and thus His deity:

In several Bible passages in Luke, Jesus refers to real events that occurred in Genesis. He specifically referenced patriarchs and events, including the murder of Adam’s son Abel.

Therefore also the Wisdom of God said, I will send them prophets and apostles, some of whom they will kill and persecute,’ so that the blood of all the prophets, shed from the foundation of the world, may be charged against this generation, from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zechariah, who perished between the altar and the sanctuary.Luke 11:51

Also in Luke, Jesus uses the time of Noah and the Flood to reference the time of His soon-coming return.

Just as it was in the days of Noah, so will it be in the days of the Son of Man. They were eating and drinking and marrying and being given in marriage, until the day when Noah entered the ark, and the flood came and destroyed them all.Luke 17:26-27

Once again in Luke, Jesus makes it clear that God made Adam and Eve at the beginning of creation they were not the product of evolution over millions of years.

But from the beginning of creation, ‘God made them male and female.’ Therefore a man shall leave his father and mother and hold fast to his wife, and the two shall become one flesh.’ So they are no longer two but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, let not man separate.” Mark 10:5-9

Genesis clearly states that all human beings were created in God’s image. All persons being created equal and endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights has formed the foundation for most positive anti-racial campaigns, including those by William Wilberforce and Dr Martin Luther King Jr. The Bible clearly teaches that God created humanity from ‘one man’ (Acts 17:26). While many secular movements depict Christianity as racist, the evolutionary worldview inherently has the most racist roots, both philosophically and in practice.

For instance, biological evolution requires an evolutionary ‘progression’ from the first ‘primitive’ humans to modern man. Unfortunately, Darwin and the early Darwinians point to an African origin of the most ‘primitive’ humans. Conversely, Europeans were considered the highest-evolved race. This philosophy influenced some of the most racist movements, including Hitler’s Nazism. It even filtered into early practices under the guise of ‘science’. African Pygmies were even caged in zoos.

Once again, the Bible’s unchanging doctrines always provide the most ethical basis for all aspects of life, in contrast to the ever-changing story of evolution.


It is no coincidence that the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered in 1947 just prior to Israel being re-established as a nation in 1947. The Dead Sea Scrolls provided proof of Israel’s right to the land they were about to occupy and what is ahead for God’s nation. Jesus will eventually rule all the nations of the world from a renewed expanded Jerusalem. Israel will be the prime nation of the world during Jesus’ Millennium Kingdom.

There is one prophecy in the Dead Sea Scrolls that explains all of history from Noah to Jesus to the Tribulation and even to the Millennial Kingdom. Known as Enoch’s 10 Weeks Prophecy (200 BC), it is amazing in its accuracy about all the seasons of man’s history from the antediluvian period, the flood, the founding of Israel to Jesus to where we are today to the Tribulation. Whilst the Book of Enoch is not in the canon of Scripture the 10 Weeks Prophecy is accurate to date so we need to look at what it says about the age we’re in today and the coming Tribulation. Watch this Nelson Walters video to find out.


Only churches that can defend Biblical faith will survive. The Bible clearly presents the following as historical events that we need to defend as miraculous events of God’s making:

  1. God created the universe in six twenty-four-hour days simply as a pattern for how man is to live. Six days we are to work and the seventh day is a day of rest and a day to worship our Creator God.
  2. Adam and Eve were created in God’s image to be in a relationship with Him. Death and separation from God were God’s judgment as a result of Adam and Eve’s SIN (rebellion against God’s command).
  3. Just 1600 plus years after creation sin had become such a problem that God judged humankind’s SIN again this time with a worldwide flood destroying all humankind and animal kind except those on Noah’s Ark.
  4. God established the nations when He confused the languages at the Tower of Babel.
  5. God established His nation; Israel was established for God’s purposes and it is yet to fully achieve those purposes. The fact that it was rebirthed as a nation in 1948 is a sign God is in control of His Story.
  6. JESUS enters history (B.C. and A.D. ) to provide humankind with a way back into a right relationship with God. He paid the price for our rebellion against God. The penalty for rebellion was death and Jesus died on our behalf so that all those that accept Jesus as their Lord and Saviour are born again with the Holy Spirit to enable them to live a Christian life and be assured of resurrection to eternal life. First, the resurrected Saints will serve with Jesus for 1000 years (Millennial Kingdom) on this earth. Then the White Throne judgment, after which, there will be a new heaven and new earth where only the righteous dwell.
  7. God has given us His Word by inspiring His prophets and apostles to write the Bible. Its authenticity is proved by the fact that much of it is now fulfilled prophecies and we are now seeing many end times prophecies being fulfilled in our time.

Fortunately, God has established the following ministries to equip us to defend all of these seven historical truths:

  1. Creation Ministries International (CMI) http://www.creation.com
  2. Answers in Genesis http://www.answersingenesis.com
  3. Creation Research http://www.creationresearch.net

In particular, I personally recommend and use the Creation Magazine when I talk to a non-believer who raises evolution as an objection to accepting Biblical truth. Become a subscriber; go to http://www.creation.com

Can I suggest you watch out for a post I intend to do entitled Answering the Skeptics: No Evidence for God.


Further to my post on March 14th: BIBLICAL HISTORY: 1. IMPACT OF WORLDWIDE FLOOD ON NATIONS AND 2. GOD ESTABLISHES HIS NATION – ISRAEL, which included an article by Gavin Cox that revealed the Egyptians revered the eight people (Noah’s family) that survived the flood as God’s. They were referred to as the OGDOAD. Bearing in mind Noah’s sons lived for another 500 years post-flood, is it any wonder they were considered God’s by the post-flood people who had life spans up to 120 years. “My Spirit shall not abide in man forever, for he is flesh: his days shall be 120 years. Genesis 6:3.

Moreover, the Ogdoad, these eight people that came off the Ark were the source of all information that came from the pre-flood people who built cities, worked with iron and bronze, and played musical instruments.

Adah bore Jabal; he was the father of all those who dwell in tents and have livestock. His brother’s name was Jubal; he was the father of all those who play the lyre and pipe. Zillah also bore Tubal-Cain; he was the forger of all instruments of bronze and iron.Genesis 4:21-22

Additional proof is provided by the Ben Ben stones taken from the top of pyramids seen here in the Cairo Museum. The Benben sacred stone represents the primeval mound, the first land that appeared from the primeval ocean, called the Nun. It was upon this land that the eight ‘gods’ (OGDOAD) sprang into being; four males and their wives, headed by the chief god ‘Nu’ which is phonetically similar to Noah.

The pyramids were themselves extensions of the Benben. We know this to be a fact linguistically because the Egyptian word for pyramid is bnbn.t which is the female version of the bnbn sacred stone. 

This explains the size and shape of the pyramids. They were a constant reminder to the Egyptians of the worldwide flood and the rebirth of the world from the deified eight occupants of Noah’s Ark.

This post will show that Ham, Noah’s third son was the Egyptian God Horus. It is part 1 of a two-part series by Gavin Cox.

One of the most famous and ancient of Egypt’s many deities was Horus, the falcon sun god. In two articles Gavin explore 12 key motifs of the life of Ham (Noah’s third son) drawn from the Genesis text. He then compares them to Horus drawn from Egyptian evidence, concentrating on the oldest evidence first.

Part 1 looks at the following motifs: 1) Ham is 11th from Adam; 2) the etymology of Ham’s name; 3) Ham came from a family of eight, and 4) Ham is the youngest of three brothers. These comparisons support the thesis that Ham was deified by the pagan Egyptians as Horus.

Egypt is eponymously called “the land of Ham” (Noah’s third son) in the Psalms (105:2327106:22) and “tents of Ham” (Psalm 78:51). Ham and Mizraim (Ham’s third son) appear together in Psalm 105:23 as designations for Egypt: “… Israel came to Egypt (miṣrāyim); Jacob sojourned in the land of Ham (ḥām).”

‘Mizraim’ is the common name for Egypt throughout Scripture. Ham was a first-hand witness of the Flood, and likely lived to a similar age as his brother Shem (500 years post-Flood, Genesis 11:11). Via Noah’s teaching, Ham knew about creation and the pre-Flood world, a knowledge that he would naturally pass to his descendants. All this became paganized by the Egyptians. Ham’s great post-Flood lifespan, involvement in re-establishing of post-Flood civilization, and knowledge of the pre-Flood world, likely meant he had divine status conferred upon him by the Egyptians.

Twelve key motifs of Ham’s life

Twelve key motifs of Ham’s life extracted from Genesis 5–11 (listed in table 1) will be compared to Horus. If Ham was deified as Horus, then the latter will likely reflect these motifs in some discernible, though paganized way. Article 1 will explore motifs 1–4, Article 2 motifs 5–12.


Both articles will set out to explore these connections, concentrating on the oldest Egyptian textual evidence in each case. Before this, a brief discussion of who Horus was is in order.

Introducing Horus—the falcon-solar deity

Horus is one of Egypt’s oldest and most important deities, attested to from at least the beginning of the Dynastic Period, where the familiar form of the Horus falcon appears on the Narmer Palette (figure 1).

Horus statue in black granite
Figure 2. Horus statue in black granite, Temple of Horus, Edfu.

Horus appears in Old Kingdom Pyramid Texts (OK PTs), along with his sons, father, and mother (see part 2). Horus is depicted as a falcon (figure 2) or falcon-headed man, who was considered a creator god, as well as a form of the sun. His father was Osiris/Geb, with a notable brother, Seth.  Much could be written regarding Horus; however, my two articles will be limited to a discussion of Horus’s possible connection to Ham, Noah’s third son.

Eleventh from Adam: Ham cf. Horus

The Genesis 5:1-32 chronogenealogies place Ham (with his brothers) 11th from Adam. Can a similar chronological relationship be discerned in Egyptian mythology, regarding Horus?

“Atum … Shu … Tefnut … Geb … Nut … [Osiris] … Isis … Seth … Nephthys … Thoth … Horus.” yes they can.

Gavin’s previous article made the case that Atum is the Egyptians’ paganized memory of Adam. Although the Ennead was considered a unified group (typically of nine), evidence suggests (e.g. PT-600§1655), that they were simultaneously considered consecutive offspring of Atum.4 All had long life spans like Noah’s sons.

Like biblical Ham, Horus is synonymous with concepts of; a) (physical) “violence” (tkk); b) (earthy) “blackness” (km)/“darkness” (kk)/“twilight” jḫḫ.w; and c) (sun’s) “heat” (bḫḫ.w).

Family of eight—Horus cf. Ham

Genesis (6:18, etc.) informs us that Ham belonged to a family of eight—comprising four males and their wives. Ancient Egypt had a group of eight gods—comprising of four males and their wives (the Ogdoad) whose names (see later) appear in OK PTs. In previous articles,25 I concluded this group represented the paganized memory of Noah’s family. The question to be asked is, if Horus is the deified Ham, is he also connected to a family of eight? The evidence presented below suggests he was. Specifically, the Ogdoad, whose names include the couple Kek and Keket (kk and kk.t).11

Like the semantic meaning of Ham, as discussed above, Horus is also connected by similar concepts: “attacker” (tkk), “darkness/twilight” (kk, jḫḫ.w) and phonetically similar bḫḫ.w “heat”. Ogdoad kk can be understood semantically from words containing the phonetic root kk, (compare ḫḫ). Thus, a shared semantic range exists between biblical Ham, Horus, and Ogdoad couple kk(.t).

Additional textual and pictorial evidence connecting Horus to the Ogdoad comes from the Hunefer BOD vignette. As Ham came from Noah’s family of eight, Horus also comes from a group of eight gods.

Scripture states Noah had three sons: Ham “his youngest” (Genesis 9:24) and “Shem … brother of Japheth the elder” (Genesis 10:21 YLT). Here Scripture employs the adjective: קָטָן (qāṭān) HALLOT-8338 ‘small, youngest’ to describe Ham. Can similar relationships be discerned in Horus’s family? The following evidence suggests this is so.

Horus had a brother, Seth, (both sons of Osiris) with whom he struggled violently for political dominion (see part 2, motif 8). A closely aligned god called Thoth is described as a brother of either Seth, or Horus in the PTs, and one example in the Coffin Texts of Horus, Seth, and Thoth being described as brothers. In BOD, Thoth shares the same father (Osiris) as Horus and Seth. When these examples are considered, then Horus is comparable to Ham in having two other brothers, and himself being described as the ‘youngest’.


This article has looked at four motifs from Ham’s life and compared them to Horus, the Egyptian falcon sun-deity. We have found positive connections in the following areas: motif 1. Ham was 11th from Adam. The case can be made that Horus is 11th from Atum when Osiris as the fatherly bystander is included from evidence in PTs regarding the Great Ennead. Motif 2. The etymology of Ham’s name includes concepts of (physical) “violence”, (earthy) “blackness/darkness”, and (sun’s) “heat”. These concepts compare favourably with divine epithets of Horus. Motif 3. Ham came from a family of 8—four males and their wives. The case is made here that Horus ascended from the Ogdoad, who are four males and their wives. Specifically, Horus is connected to Ogdoad member kk (darkness) in which case kk follows the natural ascension of darkness to light, to transform into Horus as the sun. Motif 4. Ham was the youngest of three brothers, Shem, and Japheth. The case can be made that Horus is the “child” who has a notable brother, Seth, and closely aligned to Thoth, another brother-(like) god. The connections are intriguing and so merit further study. Part 2 will analyze motifs 5–12.

The history of the world that is taught to our children in schools and universities is made up, based on the presupposition that the world evolved from pond scum. God told us in advance that the world would deny the truth about His world so that we can know He is in total control of all history from its watery beginning to its fiery end.

I am stirring up your sincere mind by way of reminder, that you should remember the predictions of the holy prophets and the commandment of the Lord and Savior through your apostles, knowing this first of all, that scoffers will come in the last days with scoffing, following their own sinful desires. They will say, “Where is the promise of his coming? For ever since the fathers fell asleep, all things are continuing as they were from the beginning of creation.” For they deliberately overlook this fact, that the heavens existed long ago, and the earth was formed out of water and through water by the word of God, and that by means of these the world that then existed was deluged with water and perished. But by the same word the heavens and earth that now exist are stored up for fire, being kept until the day of judgment and destruction of the ungodly.” 2 Peter 3:1-7


God’s Word reveals the entire history of this Cosmos from its creation out of water to its fiery end. Also, the Apostle Peter told us 2000 years ago that in the last days before Jesus returns to set up His Millennial Kingdom scoffers will deny it:

You should remember the predictions of the holy prophets and the commandment of the Lord and Savior through your apostles, knowing this first of all, that scoffers will come in the last days with scoffing, following their own sinful desires ... For they deliberately overlook this fact, that the heavens existed long ago, and the earth was formed out of water and through water by the word of God, and that by means of these, the world that then existed was deluged with water and perished. But by the same word, the heavens and earth that now exist are stored up for fire, being kept until the day of judgment and destruction of the ungodly.2 Peter 3:2-7

  1. The creation of the Cosmos by God and that the earth was formed out of water. Physicist Dr. Russell Humphreys proposed that God first created the earth and other heavenly bodies out of water. Then, according to this model, God transformed much of the water into other substances. Based on plausible assumptions about the initial magnetism, and a biblical age of the Creation, Humphreys also calculated the magnetic fields of other planets. In 1984 the Messenger spacecraft, made by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory for NASA measured the magnetic field of Mercury which confirmed Humphrey’s prediction to the astonishment of evolutionists. His model accurately predicts the field strengths we observe for other planets and explains features that are a puzzle to evolutionists. For a summary and references to Dr. Humphreys’ papers, see Sarfati, J., The earth’s magnetic field: evidence that the earth is young, Creation 20(2):15–17, 1998.
  2. The worldwide flood of Noah’s day when God poured out His wrath upon the earth destroying all but those that were in the ark. One of the proofs of the worldwide flood of Noah’s day is the millions of dead things buried all over the world – fossils and fossil fuels however there is also historical evidence: The eight survivors were deified as Gods by the Egyptians and known as Ogdoad. For more information on the Ogdoad see my recent post BIBLICAL HISTORY: IMPACT OF WORLDWIDE FLOOD ON NATIONS AND GOD ESTABLISHES HIS NATION – ISRAEL
  3. God will ultimately destroy this earth with fire and create a new heaven and new earth where only the righteous dwell.

However, before this earth is destroyed the Bible reveals that it will exist for another 1000 years ruled by Jesus and the resurrected Saints. It is a transition period from the reign of Satan to God creating a new heaven and new earth where only the righteous dwell. During this transition period, Jesus will fulfill the prophecies given to Abraham and most of the O.T. prophets that God would raise up a Messiah, Jesus who would rule the nations from a magnificently restructured Jerusalem. God established His nation, Israel, to fulfill His purposes on this earth.

The following N.T. Scripture reveals that the Messiah must reign over his kingdom until he has defeated all his enemies. Once this is accomplished, Jesus will hand over the kingdom to the Father. When the Kingdom of God is handed over to the Father, it will be free of sin and death, identifying it as the Eternal State (Revelation 21:4, 8).

But each in his own order: Christ the first fruits, then at His coming those who belong to Christ. Then comes the end, when He delivers the kingdom to God the Father after destroying every rule and every authority and power. For He must reign until He has put all His enemies under His feet.” 1 Corinthians 15:23-25

Two more N.T. Scriptures refer to Jesus’ coming Millennial reign on this earth.

“ Lest you be wise in your own sight, I do not want you to be unaware of this mystery, brothers: a partial hardening has come upon Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in. And in this way, all Israel will be saved, as it is written, “The Deliverer will come from Zion, he will banish ungodliness from Jacob”; “and this will be my covenant with them when I take away their sins.” Romans 11:25-27

“Repent, therefore, and turn back, that your sins may be blotted out, that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord, and that He may send the Christ appointed for you, Jesus, whom heaven must receive until the time for restoring all the things about which God spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets long ago.” Acts 3:19-21


With Jesus and the Saints ruling the nations in the Millennium, we can expect new technology to be developed further. I expect Nuclear Fusion will be the main power source. Robotics for the production and distribution of goods and other services: health, transport, and construction, to name a few. In the Millennium, I was surprised to learn that Jesus tells us repeatedly that He and the Saints will rule the nations with a rod of iron. Wise use of technology will be closely monitored. We will not see aborted fetuses used for medical experimentation, cryonics, cloning, or modifying DNA, things that are being pursued vigorously now.

As for me, I have set my King (Jesus) on Zion, my holy hill.” I will tell of the decree: The Lord said to me, “You are my Son; today I have begotten you. Ask of me, and I will make the nations your heritage, and the ends of the earth your possession. You shall break them with a rod of iron and dash them in pieces like a potter’s vessel.” Psalm 2:6-9

From his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations, and he will rule them with a rod of iron.” Revelation 19:15

She (Mary)gave birth to a male child, one who is to rule all the nations with a rod of iron, but her child was caught up to God and to his throne,” Revelation 12:5


If you have not already read Biblical History: Creation of Cosmos to Creation of Nations, can I suggest you do so, it was posted on 13/03/2023. I finished that post with God stepping into history to create the nations by confusing the language at the Tower of Babel. God created many new languages so that people would separate and populate all areas of the world God had created.

The next significant thing that God did was to create His own nation and He did so by selecting one obedient individual, Abraham from whom He would miraculously establish His nation Israel. It was miraculous because Abraham and Sarah could not have produced Isaac naturally. Sarah was 100 years old.

God’s nation, Israel, begins with a promise to one man, Abraham. For over four hundred years the people of Israel in bondage in Egypt rely on that promise to Abraham. God brought them out of Egypt with the greatest series of miracles ever. The EXODUS was the birth of the nation.

God tested Abraham’s obedience to the extreme by asking him to sacrifice his only son Isaac. If you want to be used by God this is the level of obedience needed. We need to trust God without qualification, absolutely.

“And the angel of the Lord called to Abraham a second time from heaven and said, “By myself, I have sworn, declares the Lord, because you have done this and have not withheld your son, your only son, I will surely bless you, and I will surely multiply your offspring as the stars of heaven and as the sand that is on the seashore. And your offspring shall possess the gate of his enemies, and in your offspring shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because you have obeyed my voice.Genesis 22:15

For you are a people holy to the Lord your God. The Lord your God has chosen you to be a people for his treasured possession, out of all the peoples who are on the face of the earth. It was not because you were more in number than any other people that the Lord set his love on you and chose you, for you were the fewest of all peoples, but it is because the Lord loves you and is keeping the oath that he swore to your fathers,” Deut. 7:6-8

It is obvious from these Scriptures alone that God has more plans for His nation Israel. From Biblical prophecies, we know that Jesus will rule all of the nations of the world from a newly constructed Jerusalem. It will be situated on the highest mountain in the world after God rearranges the earth and mountains during the time He pours out His wrath a second time prior to Jesus’ return to earth.

Back to the History of the world. Eight people came off the ark and it is interesting that they lived long lifetimes as did the pre-flood people. Shem died at the age of 1846 years. He outlived Sarah, Abraham’s wife. It is no wonder that the eight survivors of the Ark were considered gods by the Egyptian people. It was only after Noah’s generation that God reduced the life span to 120 years.

Then the Lord said, “My Spirit shall not abide in man forever, for he is flesh: his days shall be 120 years.” Genesis 6:3

Four times in the Psalms, EGYPT is called by the name of Noah’s youngest son HAM. Semitic designation for EGYPT is MIZRAIM (Ham’s second son). The name MIZRAIM appears 680 times in the Hebrew Bible. CUSH (Ham’s first son) begot NIMROD (mighty hunter). The beginning of his kingdom (BABYLON) was BABEL on the plain of SHINAR where the TOWER OF BABEL was built.

Mizraim, Noah’s grandson, founded Egypt around 2100 B.C., a date consistent with both biblical and secular records. Of interest, the Bible also tells us that Javan, Noah’s grandson to Japheth established Greece.

The archaeological evidence does indicate that the eight people that came from the Ark who carried the sum total of all human knowledge, founded civilization, and outlived their descendants were deified in the pagan religions that arose after them.

All Egyptologists are well aware of a group of eight gods, four males and four females known as OGDOAD meaning eight. Note in these pictures on the walls of pyramids, eight people are pictured on the ark which is held up by the Egyptian creator God, Atum.

The OGDOAD are also well known in later Ptolemaic and Roman texts where they play a role in Egyptian cosmological theology concerning the creation of the universe from a watery abyss. These eight gods known as the Ogdoad derived from the Greek meaning eight and are found in what is considered the most ancient evidence in the fifth dynasty pyramid texts.


Benben stones in Cairo Museum. In the mythology of ancient Egypt, there are several accounts of the creation of the world. One of these is centered on the Egyptian Creator god Atum, and had its origins in the city of Heliopolis. The other in the city of Hermopolis . According to the Heliopolis version of the creation story, the universe was brought into being by Atum. In the beginning, there was nothing but darkness and chaos. It was out of the dark waters that the primordial hill, known as the Benben stone arose, on top of which stood Atum. As the Benben stone rose from the primeval waters, it has been suggested that this word is associated with the verb ‘weben’, which is the Egyptian hieroglyph for ‘to rise’. Also, in the Biblical flood account “And the waters continued to abate until the tops of the mountains were seen.” In both cases, land appears from a state of watery chaos. Desiring companionship, god Atum began the work of creation. In some versions of the myth, he created Shu and Tefnut (Adam and Eve?) who left Atum on the Benben stone and went away to create the rest of the world.

The Benben sacred stone represents the primaeval mound, the first land that appeared from the primaeval ocean, called the Nun. It was upon this land that the eight ‘gods’ (OGDOAD) sprang into being; four males and their wives, headed by the chief god ‘Nu’ which is phonetically similar to Noah.

The pyramids were themselves extensions of the Benben. We know this to be a fact linguistically because the Egyptian word for pyramid is bnbn.t which is the female version of the bnbn sacred stone. 

This explains the size and shape of the pyramids. They were a constant reminder to the Egyptians of the worldwide flood and the rebirth of the world from the deified eight occupants of Noah’s Ark.

Nu is Noah. The names for the three other males are Kek, Heh, and Amun and are the equivalent Egyptian religious names for Ham, Japheth, and Shem. The consorts (wives) are merely the feminine forms of the male names. The names also describe the forces of chaos KEK meaning darkness, HEH meaning unlimited.

Why isn’t this taught in our history classes?

In the next part of Biblical History, we will look at Israel’s, and the world’s history up to the time of the greatest event in all of history.